Global Warming Wiki
In early 2020, the 350 Santa Fe Chapter embarked on a project to capture their volunteers' notes on a wide variety of subjects aimed at understanding the full nature of the climate crisis (aka Global Warming), possible solutions, and the resources that volunteers and activists might need to call on to make a difference. This compilation provides a common reference work on which to base or to support our programs and plans. Meanwhile, our Editors are continually adding material, improving content and growing the project.
Ways to use this Wiki
Visitors are welcome to browse this content and follow the extensive links to other materials. The power of the wiki for many is in using the Search box above to find material of interest. Use quotes when looking up specific phrases. At the bottom of each page, you will find one or more Categories listed. Each leads to a listing of all the pages in that Category.
Sometimes, Subject will indicate that a page has yet to be created for a topic or subject. If you are interested in helping complete these topics please email us at email@example.com. If you have copyediting skills and would like to help us improve our presentation, sentence structure, spelling errors, etc. please also contact us at the same email address.
You can also get more information on our 350 Santa Fe Chapter Projects if you're interested in working with us locally!
Some Recent Additions
Our editors have recently updated or added information under the following topics:
- Class VI Wells for CO2 Storage
- Hydrogen Background - added Natural Hydrogen and WISHH info.
- Green Ammonia and Green Lithium
- How to Write a Letter to the Editor
- Melting Polar Ice Caps
Feedback & Requests
We are always interested in any feedback you may provide. You can use our website contact form for general comments or you can use our website Global Warming Wiki Request Form for an addition, a correction or an improvement.
- 1 The Climate Crisis
- 2 World Climate Crisis Solutions
- 3 What's Happening in New Mexico?
- 3.1 Methane Emissions Challenges in New Mexico
- 3.2 Solar Jobs in New Mexico
- 3.3 Impacts on Indigenous Communities in NM
- 3.4 NM Executive Orders and MOUs
- 3.5 NM State Legislature
- 3.6 NM State Agencies
- 3.7 NM Constitution
- 3.8 NM Counties
- 3.9 NM Industry
- 3.10 NM Initiatives
- 3.11 NM Climate Crisis Organizations
- 4 What's Happening in the US?
- 5 What's Happening Around the World?
- 6 Environmental Movements/Philosophies
- 7 Resources
- 8 Wiki Maintenance & Editing
- 9 Credits
The Climate Crisis
- Main Article The Problem
The world’s scientists confirmed in the 2018 IPCC report that at the current rate, the world could cross 1.5˚C hotter as soon as 2030. That’s only a decade from now, well within the lifespan of most people alive today. 1.5˚C might not sound like a big increase in temperature, but it’s the difference between life and death for thousands of people. Earth has always had natural cycles of warming and cooling, but not like we’re seeing now.
2021 has joined this list of the warmest seven years on record. All have all been since 2015; the top three being 2016, 2019 and 2020. An exceptionally strong El Niño event occurred in 2016, which contributed to record global average warming. And rising temperatures doesn’t only mean it’s getting hotter. The Earth’s climate is complex — even a small increase in average global temperature means big changes, with lots of dangerous side effects. Src: http://www.350.org.
From greenhouse gas emissions, to the effects on the planet and our quality of life, The Problem is urgent, broad and deep.
In a Nutshell
1800 Alexander von Humboldt identifies human activities from agriculture and industry have an impact on the climate.
1856 Eunice Foote shows that sunlight interacts with different gases, including carbon dioxide and found it trapped the most heat. [We call it the 'greenhouse effect'. Carbon dioxide in the air acts like a blanket, trapping the sun's energy that normally would be reflected back into space.]
1980s the fossil fuel industry begins a program of climate change denial in response to its own internal predictions of global warming and the potential demise of their business.
2008 James Hansen et al, at the Goddard Institute for Space Studies finds 350 ppm CO2 in the atmosphere as a safe target to avoid global warming. We are now over 420 ppm.
2021 we were releasing over 36 gigatonnes/yr of CO2 into the atmosphere (IEA) along with other potent greenhouse gasses, refrigerants, methane, and nitrous oxide. Atmospheric CO2 levels are well above preindustrial levels.
2022, the Keeling Curve shows little evidence of improvement exceeding 420 ppm for the first time and rising at about 2 ppm per year. The main source of elevated levels of CO2 in the atmosphere is from burning fossil fuels and to a lesser extent burning forests. We need to stop doing both.
2100 IPCC predictions show that 'business as usual' will raise average temperatures by as much as 6 deg C / 11 deg F with disastrous consequences. Such higher temperatures will have a major impact on crop yields, water supplies, weather patterns, coastal flooding and potentially trigger other warming effects such as potent greenhouse gas methane releases from melting permafrost, leading to more global warming. The goal is to keep temperature rise below 2 deg C.
A really bad side effect or two
As CO2 in the atmosphere increases, more of it dissolves in the oceans of the world. This lowers their pH levels, making oceans more acidic. Many critters have a harder time with acidified water because it tends to dissolve their calcium carbonate shells. Oceanic CO2 levels are increasing in tandem with the atmospheric increases. Rain is one process by which CO2 is transferred from the air into the earth's waters. If atmospheric levels dropped enough the oceans would start to release their stores of CO2. [There's an equilibrium involved.]
As the atmosphere warms it is capable of carrying more moisture (water). This leads to heavier downpours when that same air is cooled by weather effects, mountains etc.
Why is it 350?
Climate scientists in 2008 with NASA Goddard Institute suggest that global policies should have an initial target for atmospheric CO2 of 350 ppm. They note that the optimum CO2 level for maintaining a planet similar to that on which civilization developed is likely to be less than 350 ppm, but a 350 ppm target already reveals that dramatic policy changes are needed urgently. 350 ppm CO2 has long since been passed.
CO2 levels are monitored by NOAA Global Monitoring Laboratory, where you can see current trends and the impact COVID-19 has had. As of June 2020, the answer so far is none.
World Climate Crisis Solutions
Proposed solutions come in various forms ranging from technology, social awareness, and societal change all the way to accepting the consequence of climate change and adapting. Below you can explore the various categories of solutions:
- Technical Solutions - Technical solutions consist of engineering and industry processes such as renewable energy technology, energy storage technology, carbon-friendly manufacturing, and carbon sequestration. By replacing GHG polluting industrial processes with carbon neutral or carbon negative industries, we can reduce the amount of GHG released into our atmosphere. Public and private research into promising lines of new and existing technologies are expected to contribute to longer terms solutions.
- Land Based Solutions - Biology and land management solutions, including land use and agriculture practices.
- Economic Solutions - Falling cost curves motivate a switch to green technologies.
- Political Solutions - Political will plays a big part in making changes to legislation, rules snd regulations at the federal, state and local levels. Big influences like the fossil fuel industry have resisted such changes.
- Activists Solutions - Effecting social change, training, and volunteering efforts have and will continue to be factors in changing minds.
- Public Education Solutions - Seminars, webinars, letters to the editors and such will also continue to be factors in changing minds and developing political will.
- Messaging Solutions - There's some excellent influential materials from online newsletters, government agencies (e.g. NASA) discussing the effects of global warming and possible solutions. Skilled messaging and media management will be important.
- Carbon Pricing Solutions - Putting a price on Carbon at the pump, the wellhead or the smoke stack changes behavior.
- Project Drawdown - a systematic study of solutions, their contribution to greenhouse gas emissions, costs and savings. Combined results if pursued stop greenhouse gases in the atmosphere from rising.
- Green New Deals - There are many proposals on the table.
- Individual Actions - Individually, there are many options. Collectively, they might make a difference.
- Adaptation to Climate Change - Given the enormous challenges involved in reversing global warming, experts and scholars are thinking about the best ways to cope with some of the worst effects. Resilience is like the energies we put into surviving plane crashes. Yes we need emergency exits, escape chutes and emergency responders on the ground. But it is better to avoid a crash in the first place and that is where we spend most of our resources on airline safety.
- What is ‘climate justice’? - Yale Climate Solutions - July 2020
Carbon Offsets etc
- Carbon Offsets
- Carbon Credits
- Carbon Markets
- Do They Work? - an analysis from Green Peace
What's Happening in New Mexico?
Methane Emissions Challenges in New Mexico
- Four Corners Methane Hot Spot
- Permian Basin Methane Leaks
- New analysis reveals growing methane problem in NM - - Environment Defense Fund - 2017 data and tools
- Report Finds Comprehensive Methane Rules Are Cost-Effective for New Mexico - Environment Defense Fund - Sept. 24, 2019
- Developing New Mexico’s Oil and Natural Gas Methane Strategy - NM ED, NM EMNRD - Community Impacts Meeting, March 18, 2020
- Methane leaks are far worse than estimates, at least in New Mexico, but there’s hope - Stanford University - March 2022
Solar Jobs in New Mexico
The Solar Foundation's 2019 census found that New Mexico ranked 30th in the nation for total solar jobs, but 10th in the nation for solar jobs per capita with 2,021 solar jobs. 4.67% of the state's electricity generation was from solar. Solar jobs experienced a -6.8% growth in 2019, with 5.8% projected for 2020.
Impacts on Indigenous Communities in NM
Seven environmental science students of the Institute of the Environment and Sustainability (IoES) at the University of California, Los Angeles prepared a report for the WildEarth Guardians on the impact of oil and gas drilling on indigenous communities in NM. In their studies they found that oil and gas regulatory violations could be further harming Indigenous communities in the Greater Chaco Landscape of New Mexico.
- Impacts of Oil and Gas Drilling on Indigenous Communities - September 2020
Along with charts and graphics, the report includes chapters on:
- The Landscape
- The Greater Chaco Region
- What is Fracking?
- Impacts of Oil and Gas on Indigenous Communities
- Regulating Oil and Gas
- Potentially Unlawful Drilling in Chaco
- COVID-19 and the Navajo Nation
NM Executive Orders and MOUs
- Excutive Order 2019-003 - Established the NM State Climate Task Force
- Executive Order 2022-13 - Establishing the Clean Hydrogen Development Initiative
- Memorandum of Understanding - Western Inter-States Hydrogen Hub - Feb 23, 2022
- Memorandum of Understanding - NM National Labs, State Agencies and Other Parties on 'Zero Carbon' Hydrogen - Jan 12, 2022
NM State Legislature
- New Mexico Legislation - Session Bills, Memoranda and Resolutions by year
- New Mexico Legislature - Committees, Calendar, Legislators, etc.
- LegisLetter: NM Legislature Interim Committee Hearings
- NM Legislature Interim Committees Calendar
Key Interim Committees
- Economic Development & Policy Committee
- Radioactive and Hazardous Wastes
- Water and Natural Resources
Notes on Modernizing the Legislature
- Modernizing the NM Legislature into a Professional, Paid Organization - the structural barriers to the legislative progress.
NM State Agencies
- New Mexico Climate Task Force - Executive Order, Task Force updates, etc.
- New Mexico Energy Roadmap Project 2017-2027
- The New Mexico Climate Strategy: Initial Recommendations and Status Update 2019
- New Mexico Energy, Minerals, and Natural Resource Department
- New Mexico Regional Transmission Authority (RETA)
- New Mexico State Land Office: Office of Renewable Energy
- New Mexico State Investment Council - State Agency that determines how the State's Permanent Funds are invested.
- New Mexico Public Regulation Commission - State Agency that regulates public utilities, including renewable resources.
- The NM PRC Amendment was on the ballot in New Mexico as a constitutional amendment on November 3, 2020. A "yes" vote was obtained and now supports changing the Public Regulation Commission (PRC) from an elected five-member commission to an appointed three-member commission.
- The Green Amendment for New Mexico - as part of a nationwide effort constitutional amendments are being considered state by state.
- Santa Fe County Resolution 2019-111 "...endorsing the declaration of the climate emergency... and requesting regional collaboration on an immediate just transition and emergency mobilization effort to restore a safe climate." Item #3 calls for a county wide Just Transition Plan.
- 350 Santa Fe Projects
- 350 New Mexico Initiatives
- Drawdown Projects in New Mexico - The Drawdown Project is a list of high-impact GHG reducing activities. This 350 Santa Fe - 350 New Mexico project focuses on applying them to New Mexico.
- Coalition of Sustainable Communities NM - Albuquerque, Las Cruces, Los Alamos, Santa Fe and, Santa Fe County
- NM Climate Science, Engineering and Technology Partnership - a developing 350 Santa Fe concept.
NM Climate Crisis Organizations
- Active Climate Crisis Groups - climate activist groups in New Mexico.
- Law Offices - environmental law
- NM Environmental Organizations - catalog with websites and platform/position
What's Happening in the US?
US House Select Committee on the Climate Crisis
- Solving The Climate Crisis - The Congressional Action Plan for a Clean Energy Economy and a Healthy, Resilient, and Just America - June 2020.
At 538 pages, the report covers the case for action and the plan. Attention is given to national goals, infrastructure, innovation, transformations, barriers to change, workers, exposed communities, public health, agriculture, resilience, public spaces, national security, American leadership, and much more.
US Senate Democrats Special Committee on the Climate Crisis
The Senate Democrats’ Special Committee on the Climate Crisis’ report provides a framework for Congress to finally do what is necessary to build the clean energy future we all deserve. 260 pages.
US Climate Alliance
U.S. Climate Alliance state members are committed to taking real, on the ground action that urgently addresses the climate challenge. In becoming an Alliance member, states commit to:
- Implement policies that advance the goals of the Paris Agreement, aiming to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by at least 26-28 percent below 2005 levels by 2025
- Track and report progress to the global community in appropriate settings, including when the world convenes to take stock of the Paris Agreement, and
- Accelerate new and existing policies to reduce carbon pollution and promote clean energy deployment at the state and federal level.
The U.S. Climate Alliance is a bipartisan coalition of 25 governors (including Michelle Lujan Grisham, NM) committed to upholding the goals of the Paris Agreement. Alliance governors have committed to collectively reduce their greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by at least 26–28 percent below 2005 levels by 2025.
US National Legislation
Residential solar installations can receive a 26% federal tax credit in 2020 and 22% in 2021; falling to 0% in 2022. For details, see:
- Solar Investment Tax Credit (ITC) - Solar Energies Industry Association
- H.R.763 - Energy Innovation and Carbon Dividend Act of 2019 - Citizens' Climate Lobby expects a new version will be introduced in 2021
US Agencies and Institutions
- Center for Remote Sensing of Ice Sheets - CReSIS - University of Kansas
- Natonal Center for Atmospheric Research - NCAR was established by the National Science Foundation in 1960 to provide the university community with world-class facilities and services that were beyond the reach of any individual institution.
- "Climate" - NOAA - From supercomputers and state-of-the-art models to observations and outlooks, we provide data, tools, and information to help people understand and prepare for climate variability and change.
- Climate.gov - NOAA - Science and information for a climate smart nation.
- National Centers for Environmental Information - NOAA - hosts and provides public access to one of the most significant archives for environmental data on Earth.
US Leading Climate Crisis Organizations
The following climate crisis organizations lead the cause in the US and internationally. The included purpose extracts are taken from the respective websites.
- 350.org - we are standing up to the fossil fuel industry to stop all new coal, oil and gas projects and build a clean energy future for all.
- Citizens' Climate Lobby - a non-profit, nonpartisan, grassroots advocacy organization focused on national policies to address climate change with a focus on carbon pricing.
- Climate Crisis Policy Digest - a compendium of policy ideas to eliminate greenhouse gas pollution and build a sustainably-sourced, community-centered and nature-protecting economy.
- Climate Reality Project - our mission is to catalyze a global solution to the climate crisis by making urgent action a necessity across every sector of society.
- ClimateXchange - our mission is to provide research, education, and advocacy to move us towards a low-carbon economy through market-based mechanisms.
- Environmental Defense Fund - we take on climate change and other grave threats by identifying what’s most urgent and where we can make the most difference.
- League of Conservation Voters - we influence policy, hold politicians accountable, and win elections as we fight to build a world with clean air, clean water, public lands, and a safe climate that are protected by a just and equitable democracy.
- Sierra Club - a grassroots environmental organization in the United States that amplifies the power of our 3.8 million members and supporters to defend everyone’s right to a healthy world.
US Industry Associations
- Zero Emission Transportation Association - a non-partisan group coordinates public education efforts and federal policy development to promote EV adoption with the goal of creating American electric vehicle manufacturing jobs, better serving consumers, improving air quality and public health, and significantly reducing carbon pollution.
What's Happening Around the World?
UN SDG Knowledge Hub
The SDG Knowledge Hub is an online resource center for news and commentary regarding the implementation of the United Nations’ 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, including all 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs).
UN Global Adaptation Network
The Global Adaptation Network (GAN) is helping the world to build resilience towards climate change by spreading adaptation knowledge.
The Paris Accord between member states produced a “Global Goal on Adaptation” (GGA) with the aim of “enhancing adaptive capacity, strengthening resilience and reducing vulnerability to climate change, with a view to contributing to sustainable development and ensuring an adequate adaptation response in the context of the global temperature goal” (cited in Singh, Harmeling and Rai, 2016). Countries are committed to developing National Adaptation Plans (NAPs) and report on their creation to the UN.
UN Climate Change
The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) is the United Nations body for assessing the science related to climate change.
The UNFCCC secretariat (UN Climate Change) is the United Nations entity tasked with supporting the global response to the threat of climate change.
- UN Framework Convention on Climate Change
- The UNCC 2019 Annual Report - the report is available as a PDF.
Young people around the world are taking action on climate change.
Agencies and Institutions
The World Meteorological Organization (WMO) is a specialized agency of the United Nations. It is the UN system's authoritative voice on the state and behavior of the Earth's atmosphere, its interaction with the oceans, the climate it produces and the resulting distribution of water resources.
- Ecofascism is a political ideology that combines authoritarianism with fascist policies in order to deal with environmental issues.
- Ecomodernism (aka Ecopragmatism, Earth Optimism, Enlightenment Environmentalism, Humanist Environmentalism) is an environmental philosophy which argues that humans can protect nature by using technology to "decouple" anthropogenic impacts from the natural world. Ecomodernism is a school of thought from many environmental and design scholars, critics, philosophers, and activists. (Wikipedia)
- Ecopolitics (aka green politics, green ideology) is a political ideology that aims to foster an ecologically sustainable society rooted in environmentalism, nonviolence, social justice and grassroots democracy. It began taking shape in the western world in the 1970s; since then Green parties have developed and established themselves in many countries around the globe and have achieved some electoral success.(Wikipedia)
- Ecotheology is a form of constructive theology that focuses on the interrelationships of religion and nature, particularly in the light of environmental concerns. Ecotheology generally starts from the premise that a relationship exists between human religious/spiritual world views and the degradation or restoration and preservation of nature. It explores the interaction between ecological values, such as sustainability, and the human domination of nature. (Wikipedia)
- Environmental Movement is an international movement, represented by a range of organizations, from the large to grassroots and varies from country to country. Due to its large membership, varying and strong beliefs, and occasionally speculative nature, the environmental movement is not always united in its goals. (Wikipedia)
Publications, Lists, Directories and Catalogs
- Scientific Journal Publications - list of reliable peer reviewed journal articles.
- Online Resources - list of online tools, websites, applications and information resources related to climate change, energy and related technologies.
- Book Reviews - articles on books listed on our websites.
- Video Archive - list of films, documentaries, TV Series and other video media.
- Articles Archive - list of articles from publications and newsletters.
- Good News Articles Archive - list of more encouraging pieces
- Print Media in NM - list of newspapers published in New Mexico, with contact information and guidelines for submissions.
- Newsletters - list of online newsletters
- Podcasts - from Living on Earth and America Adapts
NM Government Resources
- NM Legislature - searchable for bills, memorials, representatives, senators, committees, meetingss, etc.
- NM Agencies Directory - covering agencies, cities, counties, events, museums, parks, recreation, sports, etc.
- New Mexico Climate Strategy: Initial Recommendations and Status Update, New Mexico Interagency Climate Change Task Force, 2019
- New Mexico Clean Energy Workforce Development Study, New Mexico Department of Workforce Solutions, June 2020
Statistics and Analysis Resources
World Population Statistics
- Population Statistics through 2100 from the Pew Research Center, June 17, 2019
- Earth’s carrying capacity from the Australian Academy of Science
- June 2012 UN Report on Earth's Carrying Capacity
Economic and Cost Analyses
- Levelized Cost of Energy and Levelized Cost of Storage 2019 - an annual report from Lazard Ltd.
- Energy Outlook 2019 - an annual report from Bloomberg New Energy Finance (BNEF)
- "Cost Of Electricity By Source" - Wikipedia article containing an excellent list of energy pricing citations.
Source of Greenhouse Gas Emissions
New Mexico Economy Studies
- The Energy Transition in New Mexico: Insights from a Santa Fe Institute Workshop, Santa Fe Institute, October 5, 2020
Wiki Maintenance & Editing
- Editor is a 'group' of privileges that allows article creation and editing. Changes are kept in a page's history from which older versions can be restored. Email firstname.lastname@example.org if you are interested in becoming an Editor.
Our thanks go to everyone who has contributed ideas and content to this project:
- Teresa Bradford
- Dylan Connelly
- Robert Cordingley
- Jean Darling
- Jim Eagle
- Isabelle Jenniches
- Sara Ann Mason
- Gary Payton
- Nancy Singham
- Tom Solomon
- Greg Sonnenfeld